Food and drink | Part 2: Health and nutrition

After the seasonal feasting of the holiday season, many of us start to think about healthier eating and drinking to start the new year. So in this post we share a selection of passages about food and drink related to health and nutrition.[1]

Reconstructed olive oil press

From ancient times, humans seem to have established a link between food and well-being and health. Hippocrates has a whole section dedicated to “Nutriment” (De alimento)[2]. Many of the passages are simply brief notes; here are some examples:

“VII. Power of nutriment [trophē] reaches to bone and to all the parts of bone, to sinew, to vein, to artery, to muscle, to membrane, to flesh, fat, blood, phlegm, marrow, brain, spinal marrow, the intestines and all their parts ; it reaches also to heat, breath, and moisture.”
Hippocrates De alimento 7, adapted from translation by W.H.S. Jones

XXXIII. Milk [gala] nutriment [trophē], for those to whom milk [gala] is a natural nutriment [trophē], but for others it is not. For some wine [oînos] is nutriment [trophē], for others not. So with meats [sarkes] and the other many forms of nutriment [trophē], the differences being due to place and habit.
Hippocrates De alimento 33, adapted from translation by W.H.S. Jones

XLI. Food [sitíon] for the young partly digested, for the old completely changed, for adults unchanged.
Hippocrates De alimento 41, adapted from translation by W.H.S. Jones

L. And for such as need a quick reinforcement, a liquid [hugra] remedy [iama] is best for recovery of power; for such as need a quicker, a remedy through smell; for those who need a slower reinforcement, solid [stereē] nutriment [trophē].
Hippocrates De alimento 50, adapted from translation by W.H.S. Jones

Plato must have needed a quick pick-me-up rather than a slower one when he fell sick while traveling, based on this anecdote:

“…. There he fell sick and was cured by the priests, with a remedy [therapeía] of sea-water [thálassa], and for this reason he cited the line:

The sea [thálassa] doth wash away all human ills.

Diogenes Laertius Lives of Eminent Philosophers: Plato 3.1.6, adapted from translation by R.D. Hicks[3]

Vase painting: youth drawing off wine

A more palatable liquid remedy would be wine, as extolled by Teiresias in this speech:

Two things, young man, 275 have supremacy among humans: The goddess Demeter—she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish—nourishes [tréphein] mortals with dry foods [xērós]. But he who came then, the offspring of Semele [=Dionysus], invented a rival, the wet [hugrós] drink [pōma] of the grape [bótrus], and introduced it to mortals. 280 It releases wretched mortals from their pains, whenever they are filled with the stream of the vine [ámpelos], and gives them sleep, a means of forgetting their daily woes. There is no other cure [phármakon] for pains [ponoi].

Euripides Bacchae 274–283, adapted from Sourcebook[4]

Small food bowl with grain

In the Iliad, when Nestor brings the injured Makhaon back to his shelter, they are offered a restorative mixture of wine plus solid or dry food, prepared by Hekamede “with lovely locks”, Nestor’s war slave:

First she set for them a fair and well-made table [trápeza] that had feet of lapis; on it there was a vessel [káneon] of bronze and an onion [krómuon] to give relish [opson] to the drink [potos], [630] with honey [meli] and meal [aktē] of sacred barley [alphiton]. There was also a cup [depas] of rare workmanship which the old man had brought with him from home, studded with bosses of gold; it had four handles, on each of which there were two golden doves feeding, and it had two feet to stand on. [635] Any one else would hardly have been able to lift it from the table [trapeza] when it was full, but Nestor could do so quite easily. In this the woman, as fair as a goddess, mixed them a mixture with Pramnian wine [oinos]; she grated [knân] goat’s-milk [aigeios] cheese [turos] into it with a bronze grater, threw in a handful of white barley-meal [alphita], [640] and having thus prepared the mixture [kukeōn] she bade them drink [pinein] it.

Iliad 11.628–641, adapted from Sourcebook[5]

Relief: Demeter presenting wheat

As well as healing, the ancient Greek authors considered how food and drink could support a long life. Lucian recounts:

“Indeed, there are even whole nations that are very long-lived [makrobios], like the Seres, who are said to live three hundred years: some attribute their old age to the climate, others to the soil and still others to their diet [díaita], for they say that this entire nation drinks nothing but water [hudro-poteîn]. The people of Athos are also said to live a hundred and thirty years, and it is reported that the Chaldaeans live more than a hundred, using barley [kríthinos] bread [ártos] to preserve the sharpness of their eyesight. They say, too, that on account of this diet [díaita] their other faculties are more vigorous than those of the rest of mankind.”

Lucian Macrobii (Long Lives) 5, adapted from translation by A.M. Harmon[6]

Herodotus tells us that Cambyses wanted to know about the Ethiopians, so sent spies to find out, with gifts for the Ethiopian king, including wine. Both parties are curious about each other’s diet and longevity:

When Cambyses determined to send the spies, he sent for those Fish-eaters [ikhthuophagoi] from the city of Elephantine who understood the Ethiopian language. …

…when he [= the Ethiopian king] came to the wine [oinos] and asked about its making, he was vastly pleased with the drink [poma], and asked further what their king ate [siteîn], and what was the greatest age to which a Persian lived. [4] They told him their king ate [siteîn] bread [artos], showing him how wheat [puros] grew; and said that the full age to which a man might hope to live was eighty years. Then, said the Ethiopian, it was no wonder that they lived so few years, if they ate dung; they would not even have been able to live that many unless they were refreshed by the drink [poma] —signifying to the Fish-eaters the wine [oinos] —for in this, he said, the Persians excelled the Ethiopians.

The Fish-eaters [ikhthuophagoi] then in turn asking of the Ethiopian length of life and diet [diaita], he [=the Ethiopian king] said that most of them attained to a hundred and twenty years, and some even to more; their food [sitēsis] was boiled meat [kreas] and their drink [poma] milk [gala].

Herodotus Histories 3.19.1, 3.22.3–4, 3.23.1[7]

Mosaic: different types of fish

It is notable that the spies from Elephantine are singled out as “Fish-Eaters” since we have noted in another post (“What is Fish About?”) that many early texts seem to indicate that the Greeks were not keen on fish. However, Athenaeus mentions the opinion of Diphilos (which he quotes at length from “his work entitled A Treatise on Food fit for People in Health and Invalids”) about various varieties. Here are some examples from that passage:

Of sea [thalassios] fish [ikhthus], those which keep to the rocks are easily digested [euphthaptos], and juicy [eukhulos], and purgative [smētios], and light [kouphos], but not very nutritious [oligo-trophos]; but those which keep in the deep water [pelagios] are much less digestible [dusphthaptos], very nutritious [polutrophos], but apt to disagree with one. Now, of the fish which keep to the rocks, the phycen and the phycis are very tender [apalos] little fish [ikhthudion], and very digestible [euphthapta]; but the perch [perkē], which is like them, varies a little as to the places in which it is found. And the gudgeon [kōbios] resembles the perch [perkē]; but the smaller tench and the white ones are tender [apaloi], juicy [eukhuloi], and digestible [eupeptoi]; but the green ones … are dry [xēroi], and devoid of fat [alipēs]. … Then there is the scarus, which has tender flesh [apalo-sarkos], not very firm [psathuros], sweet [glukus], light [kouphos], digestible [eupeptos], not apt to disagree with one [euanadotos], and good for the bowels [eukoilios]. … And the fish which is called ceris is tender [apalo-sarkos], good for the bowels [eukoilios], and good for the stomach [eustomakhos]; but its juice [khulos] has fattening [panukhein] and purgative[smēkhein] qualities. … But the sparus is harsh-tasted [drimus], tender [apalo-sarkos], with no unpleasant smell [abrōmos], good for the stomach [eustomakhos], diuretic [ourētikos], and not indigestible [apeptos]; but when he is fried [tagēnistos] he is indigestible [duspeptos]. …The cestreus is found in the sea, and in rivers, and in lakes. … And the black kind is smaller than the white, and when boiled [ephthos] it is not so good as when it is roasted [optos]; for when roasted it is good for the stomach [eustomakhos] and good for the bowels [eukoilios]. … The boax, when boiled [ephthos], is very digestible [eupeptos, euanadotos], giving out a very wholesome juice [hugros], and is good for the stomach [eukoilios]; and that which is [broiled] on the coals is sweeter [glukus] and more tender [apalos].The bacchus is full of abundant [polu-khulos] and agreeable and wholesome juice [eukhulos], and is very nutritious [eutrophos]. … The thynnis and the thynnus are both heavy [barus] and nutritious [polu-trophos] … as a general rule, all the cartilaginous fish [selakhios] are apt to create flatulence [phusōdēs], and are fleshy [kreōdēs], and difficult of digestion[duskat-ergatos], and if they are eaten in any quantity, they are bad for the eyes. The cuttlefish [sēpia], when boiled [epsein], is tender [apalos], palatable [eustomos], and digestible [eupeptos], and also good for the stomach [eukoilios]; but the juice [khulos] which comes from it has the property of making the blood thin, and is apt to cause secretions by hemorrhoids. … The polypus promotes amativeness [aphrodisios], but it is hard [sklēros] and indigestible [duspeptos]; and those of the largest size are the most nutritious [trophimos], and when they are much boiled [epsein], they have a tendency to fill the stomach [stomakhos] with liquid [panugrainein], and they bind the bowels [koilia]. … The pelamys also is very nutritious [polu-trophos] and heavy [barus], it is also diuretic [ourētikos], and very indigestible [duspeptos]; but when cured [tarikheuein] like the callubium, it is quite as good for the stomach [eukoilios], and it has a tendency to make the blood thin … the chelidon is like the polypus, and emits juice [hugros] which purifies the complexion, and stirs up the blood. …

Athenaeus The Deipnosophists 8.51–53, adapted from translation by C.D. Yonge[8]

These examples shows that the author saw a clear connection between different foods and their effects on digestion and other aspects of health. It also indicates that different cooking methods could make a difference.

Terracotta figurine: child with crockery cupboard

Plato discusses what kinds of food and drink should be available in an ideal city, to support health and long life:

First of all, then, let us consider what will be the manner of life of men thus provided. Will they not make bread [sitos] and wine [oinos]…..And for their nourishment [trephein] they will provide meal [alphiton] from their barley [krithē] and flour [aleuron] from their wheat [puros], and kneading [massein] and cooking [pessein] these they will serve noble cakes [maza] and loaves [artos] on some arrangement of reeds or clean leaves, and, reclined on rustic beds strewn with bryony and myrtle, they will feast [euōkheîn] with their children, drinking [epi-pinein] of their wine [oinos] thereto, garlanded and singing hymns to the gods in pleasant [hēdus] fellowship, not begetting offspring beyond their means… Here Glaucon broke in: “No relishes [opson] apparently,” he said, “for the men you describe as feasting [hestiân].” “True” said I; “I forgot that they will also have relishes [opson]—salt [hals], of course, and olives [elaia] and cheese [turos] and onions [bolbos] and greens [lakhanon], the sort of things they boil [epsēma] in the country, they will boil up [epsein] together. But for dessert [tragēmata] we will serve them figs [sukon] and chickpeas [erebinthos] and beans [kuamos], and they will toast myrtle-berries [murton] and acorns [phēgos] before the fire, washing them down with moderate potations [hupo-pinein] and so, living in peace and health, they will probably die in old age and hand on a like life to their offspring.”

Plato Republic 2.372a–d, adapted from translation by Paul Shorey[9]

It has been speculated that Plato envisaged a vegetarian diet in his ideal city, but for those people who are active in sports, he is not against some barbecued meat like the warriors ate in Homeric poetry.

For you are aware that in the banqueting of the heroes on campaign he [=Homer] does not feast them on fish [ikhthus], nor on boiled [hethros] meat [kreas], but only on roast [optos], which is what soldiers could most easily procure. For everywhere, one may say, it is of easier provision to use the bare fire than to convey pots and pans [angeîon] along.” “Indeed it is.” “Neither, as I believe, does Homer ever make mention of sweet meats [hēdusma]. Is not that something which all men in training understand—that if one is to keep his body [sōma] in good condition he must abstain from such things altogether?” “They are right,”

Plato Republic 3.404b–c, adapted from translation by Paul Shorey[10]

Basket figurine

He cautions against excess, and makes a comparison between an appropriate, healthy appetite and the ideal of democracy:

“Would not the desire of eating [esthiein] to keep in health [hugieia] and condition [euexia] and the appetite [559b] for mere bread[sitos] and relishes [opson] be necessary?” “I think so.” “The appetite for bread [sitos] is necessary in both respects, in that it is beneficial and in that if it fails we die.” “Yes.” “And the desire for relishes [opson], so far as it conduces to fitness?” “By all means.” “And should we not rightly pronounce unnecessary the appetite that exceeds these and seeks other varieties of food [edesma], and that by correction and training from youth up can be got rid of in most cases and is harmful to the body and a hindrance to the soul’s attainment of [559c] intelligence and sobriety?” …

… “we have to tell how the democratic man develops from the oligarchical type. I think it is usually in this way.” “How?” “When a youth, bred in the illiberal and niggardly fashion that we were describing, gets a taste [geuein] of the honey [meli] of the drones and associates with fierce and cunning creatures who know how to purvey pleasures of every kind and variety and condition, there you must doubtless conceive is the beginning [559e] of the transformation of the oligarchy in his soul into democracy.”

Plato Republic 8.559a–b, 8.559d–e, adapted from tranlation by Paul Shorey[11]

Vase painting: Dionysus holding a kantharos next to a plate with breads

Plutarch has a dialogue about “Whether different sorts of food, or one single dish fed upon at once, is more easily digested” debating whether or not mixing food is more beneficial.

“Philo the physician [iatros] gave us a very sumptuous entertainment [hestiân]; and seeing some boys who came with Philinus feeding upon dry bread [artos] and calling for nothing else, he … went out to fetch them some agreeable food [khrēsimos]. He … brought them dried figs [iskhas] and cheese [turos]; upon which I said: It is usually seen that those that provide costly and superfluous dainties neglect, or are not well furnished with, useful and necessary things [khrēsima]. I protest, said Philo, I did not mind that Philinus designs to breed [hupo-trephein] us a young Sosastrus, who (they say) never all his lifetime took no other drink [potos] or food [edesma] any thing beside milk [gala], although it is probable that it was some change in his constitution that made him use this sort of diet [diaita]; but our Chiron here,— … feeding [trephein] his son with unbloody [anaimaktos] and non-animal [apsukhos] food [trophē], gives people reason to suspect that like a grasshopper he keeps him on dew and air. Indeed, said Philinus, I did not know that we were to meet with a supper [depneîn] of a hundred beasts, such as Aristomenes made for his friends; otherwise I had come with some poor [litos] and wholesome [hugiainein] food [opson] about me, as an antidote [alexipharmakos] against such costly and unwholesome [phlegmainein] entertainments [trapeza]. For I have often heard that simple [haploos] diet is not only more easily provided, but likewise more easily digested [eupeptos], than such variety.”

Plutarch Quaestiones Conviviales 4.1.1, adapted from translation by William Goodwin[12]

Philinus then argues that simple food is best because wild animals eat only one type of food and are healthier than people; and because physicians allow those with fever only to eat “simple food [aploos], and without sauce [aknisos], as more easy for digestion [pepsis].” He also says:

“mixed wine inebriates [methuskein] very soon, and drunkenness [methē] is much like a crudity rising from undigested [apepsia] wine [oinos]; and therefore the drinkers [pinein] hate mixed liquors [oinos]…

Plutarch Quaestiones Conviviales 4.1.2, adapted from translation by William Goodwin

Vase painting: symposium

His companion Marcion disagrees:

A glass of wine [oinos], when a man wants it, or a dish of palatable food [trophē], presently frees us from all disturbing particles, and settles nature in its proper state, there being as it were a calm and serenity spread over the troubled humors.

Plutarch Quaestiones Conviviales 4.1.3, adapted from translation by William Goodwin

He points out that animals actually do eat a varied diet, and refutes the idea that mixing food is a bad thing:

“it is very probable that such bodies [sōma] as ours, consisting of parts of different natures, should be nourished and built up rather of various than of simple [haploos] matter. But if by concoction there is an alteration made in the food, this will be more easily performed when there are different sorts of meat, than when there is only one, in the stomach …

Plutarch Quaestiones Conviviales 4.1.3, adapted from translation by William Goodwin

He also refers to Plato as an authority:

“But you who stick to salt [hals] and beans [kuamon] have forgot, that variety is sweeter [hēdus] and more desired by the appetite [euorektos], unless too sweet. For, the sight preparing the way, it is soon assimilated to the eager receiving body; but that which is not desirable Nature either throws off again, or keeps it in for mere want. But pray observe this, that I do not plead for variety in tarts [aburtakē], cakes, or sauces [karukē];—those are vain, insignificant, and superfluous things;—but even Plato allowed variety to those fine citizens of his, setting before them onions [bolbos], olives [elaia], leeks [lakhanon], cheese [turos], and all sorts of boiled food [hepsēma], and besides these, allowed them some dried fruits [tragēma]”

Plutarch Quaestiones Conviviales 4.1.3, adapted from translation by William Goodwin

In this post we have shared only a small selection of passages, and we invite members to share others in the Forum. What kinds of food or drink are ancient Greek texts recommending for different ailments? Are there other diets which are represented as promoting health and long life?

Selected vocabulary

Based on definitions in LSJ[13]:

abrōmos adj. free from smell
aburtakē sour sauce of leeks, cress, and pomegranate seeds
aigeios adj. of a goat or goats
aknisos adj. without fat, without savory odor
aktē grain
aleuron wheat-meal, wheat-flour
alexipharmakos antidote
alipēs adj. without fat
alphiton barley; pl. alphita barley-groats or meal
ampelos grape-vine
anaimaktos unstained with blood, bloodless
angeîon vessel for holding liquid or dry substances; receptacle
apalos adj. soft, tender, fresh
apepsia indigestion
aploos adj. simple, plain
apsukhos lifeless, inanimate, non-animal
artos bread, cake or loaf of bread

barus adj. heavy
batis skate, ray
bolbos onion, bulb; purse-tassel
botrus bunch of grapes

depas drinking-cup, beaker, goblet
depneîn to take a meal, dine
diaita way of living, regimen
drimus adj. sharp, pungent, acrid, bitter
duskatergatos hard of digestion
duspeptos adj. hard to digest
dusphthaptos adj. hard to digest

edesma meat, food, eatables
elaia olive, olive-tree
ephthos adj. boiled
epi-pinein to drink afterwards or besides
epsein to boil
erebinthos chick-pea
esthiein to eat
euanadatos adj. easy to digest
euexia good habit of body, good health, vigor
eukhulos adj. juicy, succulent
eukoilios adj. good for the bowels
euōkheîn to entertain sumptuously, feat, eat one’s fill
euorektos appetizing
eupeptos adj. easy of digestion
euphthaptos adj. easy of digestion
eustomakhos adj. good for the stomach, wholesome
eustomos adj. pleasant to the mouth, palatable
eutrophos nutritious

gala milk
geuein to taste, try
glukus adj. sweet

hals salt
haploos simple, plain
hēdus adj. pleasant
hēdusma relish, seasoning, sauce
hepsēma anything boiled; vegetables for kitchen use
hestiân to receive at one’s hearth or house, entertain, feast
hethros adj. boiled
hudropoteîn to drink water
hugieia health, soundness of body
hugiainein to be sound, healthy
hugros adj. wet, moist, fluid, liquid
hupo-pinein drink a little, drink moderately
hupo-trephein rear, nourish

iama remedy, medicine
ikhthudion little fish
ikhthuophagos adj. fish-eating
ikhthus fish
iskhas dried fig

kaneon basket, especially for bread, or for barley at sacrifices
karukē rich sauce of blood and spices
khulos juice; flavor
knân to grate
kōbios gudgeon, tench
koilia belly, intestines, bowels
kouphos adj. light
kreōdēs adj. fleshy
kreas meat, flesh
krithē barleycorn, barley
krithinos made of barley
kromuon onion
kuamos bean
kukeōn mixture, potion

lakhanon garden-herbs, vegetables
litos adj. simple, frugal, plain
massein to knead, press into a mould
maza barley-cake
meli honey
methē strong drink, drunkenness
methuskein to make drunk, intoxicate
murton myrtle-berry

oînos wine
oligotrophos adj. giving little nourishment
opson cooked meat; relish; seasoning, sauce; dainty fare
optos adj. roasted, broiled, baked
ourētikos adj. promoting urine, diuretic

panukhein to fatten
pepsis softening, ripening; cooking; fermentation; digestion
perkē perch
pessein to soften, ripen, heat; digest
pharmakon drug; healing remedy, medicine, cure; potion
phēgos acorn, oak
phlegmainein to cause to swell up, fill
phusōdēs adj. windy, flatulent; causing flatulence
pinein to drink
polutrophos adj. nutritious
poma, pōma drink, draught
potos drink
psathuros adj. friable, crumbling
puros wheat

sarx, pl sarkes meat, flesh
selakhios adj. cartilaginous, having no scales
siteîn to take food, eat
sitēsis food; eating, feeding
sition grain, bread; food
smēkhein to purge, wash
smētios adj. purgative
stereos adj. firm, solid
stomakhos throat, gullet, stomach
sukon fig

tagēnistos adj. fried
tarikheuein to preserve, by salting, pickling, or smoking (also to embalm)
tragēmata dried fruits or sweetmeats, eaten as dessert
trapeza table
trephein to rear, maintain, thicken
trophē nourishment, food, nutrition
trophimos adj. nourishing, nutritious

turos cheese

xēros adj. dry, solid

See also

What is fish about?
Exploring Bread
Health & Healing | Mythological Healers: Cheiron and Asklepios
Food and drink | Part 1: Homer and Hesiod


1 Disclaimer: The opinions in these passages are those of ancient authors. We are not suggesting that readers follow their advice!

2 English and Greek texts: Hippocrates Collected Works I. Hippocrates. W. H. S. Jones. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. 1868.
Online at Perseus

3 English and Greek texts: Lives of Eminent Philosophers. Diogenes Laertius. R.D. Hicks. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. 1972 (First published 1925).
Online at Perseus
The passage quoted is from Euripides Iphigenia in Tauris 1193, according to Hicks’ footnotes.

4 Sourcebook: The Ancient Greek Hero in 24 Hours Sourcebook: Sourcebook of Original Greek Texts Translated into English. Gregory Nagy. 2013.
Euripides Bacchae Translated by T. A. Buckley. Revised by Alex Sens. Further revised by Gregory Nagy.
Online at the Center for Hellenic Studies
Greek text: Euripides. Euripidis Fabulae, vol. 3. Gilbert Murray. Oxford. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1913.
Online at Perseus

5 Sourcebook: Iliad Translated by Samuel Butler. Revised by Soo-Young Kim, Kelly McCray, Gregory Nagy, and Timothy Power.
Online at the Center for Hellenic Studies
Greek text: Homer. Homeri Opera in five volumes. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1920.
Online at Perseus

6 English text: Lucian: Long Lives (Macrobii), translated by A.M. Harmon. 1913.
Online at
Greek text: Lucian. Works. with an English Translation by. A. M. Harmon. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. London. William Heinemann Ltd. 1913. 1.
Online at Perseus

7 English and Greek texts: Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. 1920.
Online at Perseus

8 English text: Athenaeus. The Deipnosophists. Or Banquet Of The Learned Of Athenaeus. London. Henry G. Bohn, York Street, Covent Garden. 1854.
Online at Perseus
Greek text: Athenaeus. Deipnosophistae. Kaibel. In Aedibus B.G. Teubneri. Lipsiae. 1887.
Online at Perseus

9 English text: Plato. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. 5 & 6 translated by Paul Shorey. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1969.
Online at Perseus
Greek text: Plato. Platonis Opera, ed. John Burnet. Oxford University Press. 1903.
Online at Perseus

10 English and Greek text: Plato. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. 5 & 6 translated by Paul Shorey. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1969.
Online at Perseus

11 English text: Plato. Plato in Twelve Volumes, Vols. 5 & 6 translated by Paul Shorey. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1969.
Online at Perseus
Greek text: Plato. Platonis Opera, ed. John Burnet. Oxford University Press. 1903.
Online at Perseus

12 English text: Plutarch. Plutarch’s Morals. Translated from the Greek by several hands. Corrected and revised by. William W. Goodwin, PH. D. Boston. Little, Brown, and Company. Cambridge. Press of John Wilson and Son. 1874. 3.
Online at Perseus
Greek text: Plutarch. Moralia. Gregorius N. Bernardakis. Leipzig. Teubner. 1892. 4
Online at Perseus

13 LSJ: Henry George Liddell. Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940.
Online at Perseus

Texts accessed January 2022.

Image credits

Reconstruction of olive oil extractor/juicer, Dion, Greece, unknown BCE date.
Photo: Gts-tg Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license, via Wikimedia Commons

Cage Painter: Youth drawing wine from a krater. Tondo of an Attic red-figure cup, ca. 490-480 BCE
Photo: Jastrow, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Demeter presenting wheat. Votive relief, c 440–430 BCE
Photo: Μαρσύας Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, via Wikimedia Commons

Mosaic of marine life, from Pompeii, c 100 BCE.
Photo: Carole Raddato Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license, via Wikimedia Commons

Small food bowls from a cupboard in an ancient house (late 4th-early 1st century BCE), image from the Archaeological Museum, Pella, Central Macedonia, Greece
Photo: Prof. Vlasis Vlasidis Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license via Wikimedia Commons

Child in front of a crockery display cupboard. Terracotta figurine, Hellenistic period. Louvre
Photo: Marie-Lan Nguyen Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license, via Wikimedia Commons

Basket figurine, Attic, 750–735 BCE
Photo: Daderot, public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Dionysos and Ariadne (?). The god, lying on the floor, holds a typical kantharos; next to him, a plate with breads. Attic black-figure neck-amphora, ca. 520 BCE. From Vulci.
Photo: Bibi Saint-Pol. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Nikias Painter: Symposium scene. Attic red-figure bell-krater c 420 BCE.
Photo: Marie-Lan Nguyen Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Generic license, via Wikimedia Commons

Note: Images have been selected from pictures that are freely available with open source or Creative Commons licenses or from photographs sent in by community members for the purpose. The images in this post are intended to suggest the subject, rather than illustrate exactly—as such, they may be from other periods, subjects, or cultures. Attributions are based where possible by those shown by museums, or on Wikimedia Commons, at the time of publication on this website.

Images accessed January 2022.

Hélène Emeriaud, Janet M. Ozsolak, and Sarah Scott are members of Kosmos Society.